Complete Flutter Development Automation

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Ignatius Bagussuputra
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Flutter Logo

I’m sure most of you developers have at least seen this logo before, or are even currently using it right now. It’s the newest cool kid in the block of course! Well, it’s not really that new anymore but it’s still relatively young and in par with the current next-gens like NativeScript, React Native, and Progressive Web Apps. Compared to our old-school veterans like plain Java Android, Swift, and Kotlin perhaps? They are the successors to our modern world.

What even is Flutter

For those who’ve never heard of this, Flutter is Google’s UI framework to develop mainly mobile applications for Android and iOS with their built-in SDK.

Flutter is Google’s UI toolkit for building beautiful, natively compiled applications for mobile, web, and desktop from a single codebase

It is based on Dart language, created by Google too. You can see there’s a pattern building up here. Google has made Dart easy by having a lot of similarities with existing languages like JavaScript, and Flutter is just like frameworks made with JS and Python.

Why you shouldn’t only learn Flutter

This is not to throw you away from learning Flutter, not at all. In fact, this might be another reason to learn Flutter even more.

So if your goal is to work in a multi-million dollar companies, or just any big companies with legacy codes, then Flutter may not be your first choice, but it should still be in your toolset.

Either that, or the startup you’re aiming for is using one technology (usually just JavaScript) to develop all of their applications, from Desktop to Web to Mobile to Tablets, and etc.

Why you should start using Flutter

  1. Built-in and pre-made custom widgets
  2. Mild learning curve
  3. Excellent, top-tier documentation
  4. Fast-growing community
  5. No messing with XML files
  6. Native performance with no bridge
  7. Supports both strong and weak typing
  8. Hot reload functionality
  9. Write once for all platforms

I really can’t think of any other reasons why we shouldn’t start using Flutter to develop any future mobile apps. It is, in fact, the fastest and hottest rising stack in the current mobile development world.

Flutter trend comparison

If you’re still not convinced yet… excluding Swift, which is slowly going down on the trend, Flutter is the highest on the chart! It is on its way to beat native languages like Swift, Java, and Kotlin.

Please keep in mind that this will only apply if you are actually developing new apps either now or in the future. It’s not really encouraged to migrate existing codebase, especially huge ones, to Flutter.

Time-driven development

This is what I’ll be basing on for this post. Advokasimu, which is the app my team and I are currently working for this 2020 course of PPL. We have been researching for a lot of time before we started and we found our best engine for this project.

Remember what I said before about having a pattern building up here. Well, here’s another Google’s child, which is Firebase.

Firebase logo

Firebase is the best engine for Flutter, it feels like it’s specially built for it. Well, I guess it is since both are made by Google. But! There are other reasons of course.

I’ll start of by saying there’s no reason for you to not use Firebase with Flutter, except if you’re concerned with using Google products, in which case picking Flutter should also be in your concern too.

Sadly, Firebase can’t be self-hosted, but then again, the benefits that comes with it is spectacular. It is scalable too in a sense that, when you need more performance, bandwidth, storage, or anything in that matter, you can just pay for it. Just think of it as a substitute to the electricity cost and other things to set up and run your own server in exchange for time, energy, and convenience.

Of course, we’ll be going through what’s best for this project since it is a time-driven development.

  1. Zero-config development

    One of the biggest bottleneck of developing an application is focusing on infrastructure management, and when your constrain is time, this is something that you shouldn’t think too much about.

    Firebase provides a lot of functionalities straight out-of-the-box. Just a couple of clicks to set up a project, download its pre-made config file, and you’re set to go! Everything is handled by Firebase and you can start developing instantly.

  2. Multiple available functionalities

    There are dozens of functionalities to choose from. It has serverless architecture to create scalable apps, real-time and production-ready databases, simple authentication, cloud storage, unlimited app analytics, etc.

    All of which you need to set up manually in other DBMS, or just a pain to use. Which is not the case here with Firebase.

  3. Excellent APIs

    Straight-forward, plain and simple APIs to use that integrates perfectly with Flutter’s data fetching and handling.

Container-based CI/CD

Before we move on to the next section about Continuous Integration and Deliveries, we need to make our own image first, build our own container, or whatever is it that you know. But, why though? I hear you say. It might be fine to just use an existing image or just copy some similar project’s .gitlab-ci.yml. The latter might be fine if you’re certain about it, but keep in mind that every project have different needs.

Here’s some of the reasons why I’m building my own image

  1. Our dependencies are heavy to load or install, therefore running the install script every time a new code is pushed would not be wise and will waste a huge amount of time.
  2. We’re using our own GitLab server provided by the faculty, as such, we’re also sharing runners between all other students or members using it. With limited computing power, we’ve experienced timeouts just because the server can’t run the job after 1 hour.
  3. I think 2 of the points above are sufficient enough to prove why it’s 100% better to just build your own image, but another benefit to it is cache. Even after it has run once, it will cache the image making the next job or pipeline using it so much faster.
  4. We can also migrate to any other workplace and have the exact same environment by just using this image.

We’ll be using docker to build our image and docker hub to store it. We could go about the difference of docker and VMs, but since GitLab can only use images, VMs are out of the question.

To build the image, we first need to have docker install on our system. Once we got it set up, we create a Dockerfile and build our image locally

FROM ubuntu:latest RUN mkdir /development WORKDIR /development ARG DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive RUN apt-get -q update && apt-get -qy upgrade RUN apt-get -qy install git curl unzip xz-utils # Flutter SDK ENV FLUTTER_HOME /development/flutter ENV DART_HOME ${FLUTTER_HOME}/bin/cache/dart-sdk RUN curl -o flutter-sdk.tar.xz RUN tar xf flutter-sdk.tar.xz && rm flutter-sdk.tar.xz ENV PATH $PATH:${FLUTTER_HOME}/bin ENV PATH $PATH:${DART_HOME}/bin RUN flutter config --no-analytics # Flutter Coverage RUN apt-get -qy install lcov # Android x Java SDK ENV JAVA_HOME /usr/lib/jvm/java-8-openjdk-amd64 ENV ANDROID_HOME /development/Android RUN apt-get -qy install lib32z1 openjdk-8-jdk RUN mkdir Android && curl -O RUN unzip -q -d Android && rm ENV PATH $PATH:${JAVA_HOME}/bin ENV PATH $PATH:${ANDROID_HOME}/tools ENV PATH $PATH:${ANDROID_HOME}/tools/bin ENV PATH $PATH:${ANDROID_HOME}/platform-tools RUN yes | sdkmanager --install "platform-tools" "platforms;android-28" "build-tools;28.0.3" RUN touch /root/.android/repositories.cfg RUN yes | flutter doctor --android-licenses # NodeJS v13 RUN apt-get -qy install lsb-release gnupg RUN curl -sL | bash - RUN apt-get install -qy nodejs # MS App Center RUN npm install -gs appcenter-cli RUN apt-get update && apt-get -qy upgrade RUN apt-get -qy autoremove && apt-get -qy autoclean # Final Analysis RUN flutter doctor -v && appcenter

Here’s the said Dockerfile I use to create my image. I’ll be going through each line of code one by one.

And with that final line, we’re done with our Dockerfile! The next step is to just build the image locally and if you’ve already done that, we can push it to the hub.

Continuous Integration

Flutter, well… all of static typed language is somewhat a double-edged sword. It would be an excellent investment for the future of the codebase, but yet again, when time is a constraint, it can be a problem for yourself too.

Thankfully, we have automation in our side! Flutter’s linter is so verbose and exact, it would tell us exactly what went wrong and what is expected. We will set it up to check every time we pushed our code.

Like any other projects, having to wait and download the same exact stuff again and again is tedious and time-wasting. So, we’re going to use our own image that we built in the previous section.

image: ignatiusmb/ppl2020-flutter:latest # This is optional, you can follow this stages exactly or have your own stages: - lint - test - analysis - deploy - show

If all your needs are all covered by the Dockerfile, you can absolutely use this exact image too. Then, all you have to do is specify your stages according to your needs, this one’s for linting and it’s the first stage (lint).

lint:codebase: stage: lint script: - flutter analyze

That’s it! Now every time you commit and pushed new code to the repository, it will automatically run as a new job in the pipelines and lint the newly added code. That’s not the only fun part though, we’re going to add automated tests and coverage too, this is the second stage (test).

test:coverage: stage: test script: - flutter test --coverage coverage: '/lines......: \d+\.\d+\%/' artifacts: paths: - $CI_PROJECT_DIR/coverage expire_in: 2 days

You’ll need to pass the results as an artifact for the next stage which they need to create the analysis, we’ll save it in the $CI_PROJECT_DIR in the coverage folder. We’ll also show the coverage in the terminal at line 5. We’re going to use the artifact to create our analysis as well as send it to the server, this is the fourth stage (analysis).

analysis:quality: image: ignatiusmb/sonarscanner-flutter:1.0.0 stage: analysis dependencies: - test:coverage before_script: - flutter pub get - rm -f analysis_options.yaml script: - sonar-scanner -Dsonar.login=$SONARQUBE_TOKEN -Dsonar.projectKey=$SONARQUBE_PROJECT_KEY$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME analysis:coverage: stage: analysis dependencies: - test:coverage script: - lcov --list coverage/ - genhtml coverage/ -o coverage artifacts: paths: - $CI_PROJECT_DIR/coverage/ expire_in: 10 days

I’m using a custom built image to make sure that no packages are missing, but you’ll probably get away with just the default image sonarsource/sonar-scanner-cli.

analysis:quality is to send out the command to run the analysis on our code, and analysis:covergae is to create the final lcov and html as an artifact to download. This won’t happen in the previous jobs has failed.

The first line in before_script at the analysis:quality is a crucial part for making Flutter to work with sonarscanner. Removing analysis_options.yaml is probably optional but we’re doing it because our faculty’s server has its own yaml config that overrides ours.

The final results of your project’s coverage will be stored as artifacts that expires in 10 days. You can download it in that period of time.

Continuous Delivery/Deployment

This is the part where we’re going to ship our products to our clients, and hopefully make out lives easier to test and check our production app too.

We’re going to leverage on a platform called App Center by Microsoft to deploy our app. Thankfully, they have an cli to actually make all of this easier too using npm!

Before we continue, we’re going to create a helper script so in case we want to make several different jobs for development build and production build, we won’t have to write a lot the same code.

This is absolutely optional, if you only have one deployment stage, you can just immediately write this in the before_script

.before_deploy: before_script: - appcenter login --token $APP_CENTER_API_KEY - echo $GOOGLE_SERVICES | base64 -di > android/app/google-services.json

Then, all we have to do is extend our pre-made script, build the apk on release mode, and use appcenter cli to distribute it, this is the final stage (deploy).

deploy:production: extends: .before_deploy stage: deploy only: - master tags: - docker - build script: - flutter build apk --release --build-number=1 --build-name=YOUR_APP_NAME - appcenter distribute release -f build/app/outputs/apk/release/app-release.apk --app $APP_CENTER_APP_NAME_DEV --group $APP_CENTER_GROUP_TARGET

That’s it! We have now completed our setup to fully automate flutter development using GitLab’s devops specifically. All you have to is just start writing some code. Cheers!


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